You do not need a Microsoft account (email or other) to use Windows 10.
However, when you are setting up Windows 10 you initially use it Microsoft will make it appear you have to have a Microsoft account. The process requests you to enter your Microsoft account or to create a Microsoft account.
At this point in the setup you do have to enter a phone number r an email address to be the initial account in Windows 10. The email address can be a non-Microsoft email address. If it is not a Microsoft address you will create a password or PIN (a number like you use on a debit or ATM card).
Once you finish setting up the account and Windows 10, you can go back in and change your account to not be a Microsoft account. To do that you will go to settings (the sprocket shaped icon in Start menu), then to account and then to your info. Once there you will see an option under your account to change to a local account. Clicking it will then let you make a local account, just for this PC. There will be a place o enter a password and confirm it. However, it does not tell you that entering a password is optional. You can leave blank and then there will not need a password entered. However, be cautious in doing that. If this is a laptop you will be traveling with I would encourage a password, so if gets in wrong hands (or left in motel room and cleaning staff sees) a password will stop or slow them down in getting to your data. However, if this is a machine kept only in your house and everyone who has access to it is allowed to use it, then a password could be optional.
Remember you can change your password at any time, even if you left blank, by doing Alt+Ctrl+Del key sequence and choose change password.